On the contrary, it must do all in its power to promote the production of a sufficient supply of material goods, "the use of which is necessary for the practice of virtue." 206. Ivetta of Huy: Mater et Magistra book. To the performance of it We call, not only Our own sons and brothers scattered throughout the world, but also men of goodwill everywhere. (10). 221. It was for this reason that the Leonine encyclical enunciated those general principles of rightness and equity which have been assimilated into the social legislation of many a modern State, and which, as Pope Pius XI declared in the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, (8) have made no small contribution to the rise and development of that new branch of jurisprudence called labor law. making the assistance they give an excuse for forcing these people into their own national mold. The only permanent remedy for this is to make use of every possible means of providing these citizens with the scientific, technical and professional training they need, and to put at their disposal the necessary capital for speeding up their economic development with the help of modern methods. By no means. 27:17. First, with regard to agriculture, it would not appear that the rural population as a whole is decreasing, but it is an undeniable fact that many people are moving away from their farms into more thickly populated areas as well as into the cities themselves. Unbridled ambition for domination has succeeded the desire for gain; the whole economic regime has become hard, cruel and relentless in frightful measure.'' This would be diametrically opposed to the common good. Zdůrazňuje, že je nutno využít jejich předností a zmírnit jejich nevýhody; vzniká totiž nebezpečí, že bude omezena svoboda jednotlivce i společenských … Furthermore, a strict check should constantly be kept upon their activity, so as to avoid any possibility of the concentration of undue economic power in the hands of a few State officials, to the detriment of the best interests of the community. Read Mater et Magistra. La Mater Et Their work has to do with the life of plants and animals, a life that is inexhaustible in its expression, inflexible in its laws, rich in allusions to God the Creator and Provider. Sur l'évolution contemporaine de la vie sociale à la lumière des principes chrétiens We know the nature and extent of the difficulties under which these dearest sons of Ours are laboring, as they strive continually and effectually to promote in their own countries and throughout the world the material and moral interests of the working people. 67. They may even go so far as to bring discredit on the Church's teaching, lending substance to the opinion that, in spite of its intrinsic value, it is in fact powerless to direct men's lives. Among citizens of the same political community there is often a marked degree of economic and social inequality. On the contrary, we can hope that they will help him to develop and perfect his own personal talents, and lead to that organic reconstruction of society which Our Predecessor Pius XI advocated in his encyclical Quadragesimo Anno as the indispensable prerequisite for the fulfilment of the rights and obligations of social life, (26). It also guarantees "the conservation and perfection of a social order which makes possible a secure, even if modest, property to all classes of people." Yet at the same time, the divine Master frequently extends to the rich the insistent invitation to convert their material goods into spiritual ones by conferring them on the poor. He demands, therefore, a moral and religious order; and it is this order—and not considerations of a purely extraneous, material order—which has the greatest validity in the solution of problems relating to his life as an individual and as a member of society, and problems concerning individual states and their inter-relations. It is also true that more and more people today, through belonging to insurance groups and systems of social security, find that they can face the future with confidence—the sort of confidence which formerly resulted from their possession of a certain amount of property. It is taught that the state must sometimes intervene in matters of health care, education, and housing. These problems are necessarily the concern of a whole group of nations, and possibly of the whole world. In His solemn prayer for the Church's unity, Christ Our Lord did not ask His Father to remove His disciples from the world: "I pray not that thou shouldst take them out of the world, but that thou shouldst keep them from evil." (62). How can economic development and the supply of food keep pace with the continual rise in population? 18. It is energetic, generous and considerate. 90. But however extensive and far-reaching the influence of the State on the economy may be, it must never be exerted to the extent of depriving the individual citizen of his freedom of action. Hence, though the Church's first care must be for souls, how she can sanctify them and make them share in the gifts of heaven, she concerns herself too with the exigencies of man's daily life, with his livelihood and education, and his general, temporal welfare and prosperity. - Duration: 24:52. par Jean XXIII. On the technological level, the advancement of science and … Mater Et Magistra-Encyclical by Pope John XXIII-May 15, 1961-English translation: “Mother and Teacher” Historical Context Post-World War II Economic Expansion o Also known as: Postwar Economic Boom Long Boom Golden Age of Capitalism o Period of economic prosperity in the mid-20 th century which occurred following the end of WWII in 1945 and lasted until the early 1970s o High productivity growth … Among these there is the desire to escape from confining surroundings which offer little prospect of a more comfortable way of life. Their attitude must be one of loyal trust and filial obedience to ecclesiastical authority. Moreover, it would be quite useless to insist on free and personal initiative in the economic field, while at the same time withdrawing man's right to dispose freely of the means indispensable to the achievement of such initiative. Experience shows that these problems arise whether the capital which makes possible these vast undertakings belongs to private citizens or to public corporations. As a further consequence, the modern youth is enabled to devote a longer time to his basic schooling in the arts and sciences. These, then, are the educational principles which must be put into effect. He that hath the substance of this world and shall see his brother in need and shall shut up his bowels from him; how doth the charity of God abide in him?" 176. In the social field we have the development of social insurance and, in the more economically advanced communities, the introduction of social security systems. In dealing with the family the Supreme Pontiff affirmed that the private ownership of material goods has a great part to play in promoting the welfare of family life. 116. 255. 68. 101. But their degree of applicability to concrete cases cannot be deter mined without reference to the quantity and quality of available resources; and these can—and in fact do—vary from country to country, and even, from time to time, within the same country. Rural workers should feel a sense of solidarity with one another, and should unite to form co-operatives and professional associations. Similarly, Our Predecessor, Pius XII, rightly asserted that our age is marked by a clear contrast between the immense scientific and technical progress and the fearful human decline shown by "its monstrous masterpiece . It was promulgated on 15 May 1961. 1 thought on “Mater et … As for the State, its whole raison d'etre is the realization of the common good in the temporal order. On the national level they include: employment of the greatest possible number of workers; care lest privileged classes arise, even among the workers; maintenance of equilibrium between wages and prices; the need to make goods and services accessible to the greatest number; elimination, or at least the restriction, of inequalities in the various branches of the economy—that is, between agriculture, industry and services; creation of a proper balance between economic expansion and the development of social services, especially through the activity of public authorities; the best possible adjustment of the means of production to the progress of science and technology; seeing to it that the benefits which make possible a more human way of life will be available not merely to the present generation but to the coming generations as well. Arguments to this effect are based on such unreliable and controversial data that they can only be of very uncertain validity. One advantage which would result from the adoption of this plan would be that it would be easier to keep track of the movement of the working force set free by the progressive modernization of agriculture. We would observe, finally, that the present demand for workers to have a greater say in the conduct of the firm accords not only with man's nature, but also with recent progress in the economic, social and political spheres. 106. There must be a way to regulate the prices of petroleum in the country so that the producers cant just increase their prices to gain profit because the prices of … In this Leo XIII showed his complete mastery of the situation. xxiii ai venerabili fratelli patriarchi primati arcivescovi vescovi e agli altri ordinari locali che sono in pace e comunione con la sede apostolica, sui recenti sviluppi della questione sociale, alla luce della dottrina cristiana . 242. It must be respected and as far as possible clarified and developed, so that it may remain what it is: a foundation of true civilization. 239. At the same time, however, this assessment of the increased efficiency of social and economic systems in a growing number of communities serves also to bring to light certain glaring discrepancies. Such action would, moreover, have harmful impact on international relations, and constitute a menace to world peace. (25). For this reason, too, investors are more inclined to put their money in industry rather than agriculture. The Church aims rather at securing that the institution of private property be such as it should be according to the plan of the divine Wisdom and the dispositions of Nature." 49. Individual political communities may indeed enjoy a high degree of culture and civilization. LOTERÍA NAVIDAD 2015 35. 144. 9. In such cases We believe that the workers should be allocated shares in the firms for which they work, especially when they are paid no more than a minimum wage. ENCYCLICAL OF POPE JOHN XXIII ON CHRISTIANITY AND SOCIAL PROGRESS. 23. 13. 122. The most fundamental modern error is that of imagining that man's natural sense of religion is nothing more than the outcome of feeling or fantasy, to be eradicated from his soul as an anachronism and an obstacle to human progress. Ideally, such price protection should be enforced by the interested parties themselves, though supervision by the public authority cannot be altogether dispensed with. Of itself, however, emergency aid will not go far in relieving want and famine when these are caused—as they so often are—by the primitive state of a nation's economy. This view of work is certainly an indication of an advance that has been made in our civilization. They are fully deserving of Our praise. To turn to the political field, We observe many changes. The most perniciously typical aspect of the modern era consists in the absurd attempt to reconstruct a solid and fruitful temporal order divorced from God, who is, in fact, the only foundation on which it can endure. He bestowed on the Church in that encyclical of His vicar on earth, and to praise Him for the lifegiving breath of the Spirit which through it, in ever-growing measure from that time on, has blown on all mankind.'' 262. 129. Thus Pius XI's teaching in this encyclical can be summed up under two heads. Moreover, We consider it altogether vital that the numerous intermediary bodies and corporate enterprises—which are, so to say, the main vehicle of this social growth—be really autonomous, and loyally collaborate in pursuit of their own specific interests and those of the common good. 207. As a rule no single commonwealth has sufficient resources at its command to solve the more important scientific, technical, economic, social, political and cultural problems which confront it at the present time. The status of trade unions varied in different countries. As We pass all this in review, We are aware of Our responsibility to take up this torch which Our great predecessors lighted, and hand it on with undiminished flame. They opened out new horizons for the activity of the universal Church, and the Supreme Shepherd, by giving expression to the hardships and sufferings and aspirations of the lowly and oppressed, made himself the champion and restorer of their rights. 103. Yet although individuals and nations are becoming more and more convinced of this twofold necessity, it would seem that men in general, and particularly those with high responsibility in public life, are showing themselves quite incapable of achieving it. Mater et magistra. They concern first of all the question of work, which must be regarded not merely as a commodity, but as a specifically human activity. 161. Pages 34. It is a work which demands a capacity for orientation and adaptation, patient waiting, a sense of responsibility, and a spirit of perseverance and enterprise. Probably the most difficult problem today concerns the relationship between political communities that are economically advanced and those in the process of development. 188. Systems of social insurance and social security can make a most effective contribution to the overall distribution of national income in accordance with the principles of justice and equity. There is the lure of novelty and adventure which has taken such a hold on the present generation, the attractive prospect of easy money, of greater freedom and the enjoyment of all the amenities of town and city life. She is "the pillar and ground of the truth." 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