Many kinds of DoS attacks exist; the simplest to implement is a flood attack, in which the hacker overwhelms a device or network with a flood of ICMP packets. Land.c is a program that sends TCP segments to a destination where both the source address and destination are the same in the packet. You periodically should compare the critical files on your server to the snapshot that you took previously. If a user activates these, they can cause damage to your system or open a security hole that will allow a hacker into the networking device. Another common type of attack is an access attack. With a good hacking software program, a skilled hacker can insert himself into the middle of an existing connection. Theft and burglary are a bundled deal because of how closely they are related. To prevent spamming and e-mail bombs, as well as to reduce the likelihood of a hacker using a public e-mail site to execute a repudiation attack, you should block all e-mail access from public e-mail sites. For instance, if you have a web server, you should disable services such as Telnet, SMTP, finger, and FTP on it. For some applications, you might consider replacing them. I use this tool a lot when examining networks to see what services are running, which is helpful in determining whether devices are exposed. A ping of death attack is one of my favorite attacks because of its simplistic beauty. Reconnaissance attacks come in different types, including the following: The following sections cover the basics of these types of reconnaissance attacks. By filtering these scripts and applets, you are reducing the likelihood of a hacker performing a session layer attack. Many packages are available on the market, with the most popular being antivirus software packages from Network Associates and Norton (I use Norton on my PC). Many commercial, shareware, and freeware protocol-analyzer products are available. As an example, certain types of transactions need a nonrepudiation process. To prevent a hacker from using known vulnerabilities to access your system, you should make sure that your applications and operating systems have the latest security patches applied. Therefore, the solution was simple: Give only permanent employees the privileged EXEC password for the routers. This might mean that some legitimate people might not be able to send you e-mail any longer, but, on the other hand, you are greatly reducing the likelihood of exposure to reconnaissance, DoS, and repudiation attacks against your e-mail system. To highlight our vision of this digital world, here is an unfortunately not exhaustive list of main computer threats. Masquerading is an attack method that a hacker uses to hide his identity. There are many more types of cyber threats out there, but these are the biggest, judging by industry wide trends and concern among cybersecurity experts. Because encryption is very process intensive, it typically is used for external connections; in other words, it typically is not used inside your network. Using this design, even if a hacker has compromised one of the PCs in your network and loads a packet-sniffing tool onto the PC, the hacker will be able to see only traffic directed at the compromised PC or multicast or broadcast traffic. Any other type of eavesdropping by anybody else (other employees), however, should not be tolerated and should be dealt with immediately. In Information Security threats can be many like Software attacks, theft of intellectual property, identity theft, theft of equipment or information, sabotage, and information extortion. You also might want to configure filters to allow routing update traffic from only certain routing sources; however, if the hacker is smart about this process, he typically changes the source address to match an address that is specified in your allowed list. Another typical solution for file servers is to use application verification software. … A sophisticated hacker, on the other hand, includes Trojan horses, viruses, or worms that either are embedded in the e-mail or are included as an attachment. After a hacker has broken into one of your networking devices, he usually tries to raise his privilege level to the highest possible degree and then uses this account to break into other networking devices. In TCP/IP, this form of an attack is called IP spoofing. Host-based firewalls are discussed in more depth in Chapter 2. Malicious intent might or might not exist, but there is always indifference to the resulting damage caused to others. TCP SYN flood attacks occur when a hacker floods a particular service with TCP SYN segments without any intent of completing the connection. All rights reserved. This makes it easy for a hacker to get an e-mail account and hide his activities behind a cloud of anonymity. Many scanning tools are available?freeware, shareware, and commercial. To execute this kind of attack, a hacker typically first performs a reconnaissance attack, such as eavesdropping, to discover user accounts and passwords, and then executes an unauthorized access attack. Many different views actually exist regarding the definition of these three types of attacks. You then run a periodic analysis with the application-verification software, comparing the current files on the server with the secured ones. One of the easiest attacks that hackers like to employ involves masquerading and session hijacking. Cisco IOS routers have two features: Lock-and-key access control lists (ACLs) and authentication proxy. Either they are logic attacks or resource attacks. The uptake in online services means this form of crime can now be done on a much larger scale and foreign nationals as well as onshore criminals can defraud local authorities from outside the UK. Hackers sometimes use Java or ActiveX scripts to create malicious applets. All too often, employers fail to prosecute this type of activity. When the ICMP traffic reaches the destination network, the devices respond to the spoofed source address, which is the device that the hacker wants to flood. As an example, the hacker might cut the source device out of the picture and pretend to be the source, tricking the destination device into believing that the destination still is communicating with the original source. One of my favorites, GFI's LANguard Network Security Scanner, is a feature-rich network-scanner tool. This was because every week a new contractor was hired and an old contractor's time was up, and the old contractor moved on to the next job. Obviously, certain network administrators should be allowed to perform eavesdropping in certain situations, such as troubleshooting connectivity issues. A direct threat identifies a specific target and is delivered in a straightforward, clear, and … The main difference between IPSec and SSL is that IPSec can protect any type of IP traffic, whereas SSL can protect only web application traffic. Lock-and-key works hand-in-hand with PPP's CHAP. For instance, if you wanted to set up a connection to a remote site, but you wanted some kind of proof of the remote site's identity, your networking device could get the digital signature of the remote site from the CA and then request the remote site's own digital signature. But like most of these digital threats, the most effective way to combat these pests is to prevent them from affecting your computer in the first place! Because less than three days had passed since the loss was inadvertently exposed, I was shocked at the coolness and speed of the reaction. The most common method of stopping networking and port-scanning attacks is to use filtering devices. Even if the machine does not crash, the hacker is tying up buffer space, which prevents legitimate traffic from being processed. Your networking device then would compare the two signatures. Almost all TCP/IP services use the Domain Name System (DNS) to resolve names to IP addresses. For internal security, you might want to include in your security policy a statement that prohibits eavesdropping, with severe penalties applied. Typically, most of these attacks are exploited through the e-mail system, although there are other methods, such as executing an infected program. Routing protocol protection is discussed in Chapter 15, "Routing Protocol Protection. Unfortunately, WPS security … TCP SYN flood attack In this … VPNs, which are discussed in Part VIII, "Virtual Private Networks," allow you to use Data Encryption Standard (DES), 3DES, and AES encryption algorithms to protect your data. In step 1 of this example, the hacker is examining traffic between the user and the server. The following are common solutions used to detect and prevent DoS attacks: Using an intrusion-detection system (IDS), Using routing protocols with authentication, The first solution that you should implement is filtering. When downloaded to user's desktop, these applets sometimes can damage the user's file system or send information back to the hacker that he then can use to attempt further attacks. Logging is discussed in Chapter 18, "Logging Events.". Code Red and Nimda are examples of high-profile worms that have caused significant damage in recent years. So even if the hacker “thought” no one would be hurt, the result is often that they just beat some single parent or new hire out of a day’s pay. You can find the best antivirus software reviewsjust by performing a quick Google search or by going to a reputable revie… An example of this attack is discussed earlier in the chapter in the "Unstructured and Structured Threats" section and in Figure 1-2. Hackers sometimes send garbage data to this port, hoping that your resource will process this information and thus take away CPU cycles from other legitimate processes on the resource. The user is authenticated first through CHAP and then through lock-and-key. You might want to consider replacing your standard Telnet application with a secure one that encrypts the password before sending it across the network, such as SSH. Cybercriminals are carefully discovering new ways to tap the most sensitive networks in the world. This list of threats and vulnerabilities can serve as a help for implementing risk assessment within the framework of ISO 27001 or ISO 22301. For instance, signing electronic documents, transferring money electronically, and buying a product online with your credit card all must have a nonrepudiation process, or else they cannot be legally binding. 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